What is National Register of Citizens?


What is Full Meaning of NRC?

NRC stands for the National Register of Citizens.

What is NRC?

The National Register of Citizens is the register which contains the names of the Indian citizens. At present, Assam is the only state having such a Register. The government of India is planning to extend this register to the rest of the Indian States. Nagaland is already designing the collection of data known as Register of Indigenous in Habitats. The government is planning to create a National Population Register, which will contain the biographic and demographic details of the citizens.

Why NRC Is Important In Assam?

In Assam, based on the Census conducted in the year 1951, NRC has been prepared to record details of the persons listed during the Census. The list includes the Indian citizens who are living in the Assam state and to identify the foreign citizens. Following the orders of the supreme court in 2013, The NRC will now be updated, including the names of the persons who occur in the 1951 NRC or any electoral rolls up to the midnight of 24 March 1971, Or any other permissible document provided which would prove their existence in Assam or any other part of India on or before 24 march 1971.

The names appearing in the NRC, 1951 list, or any of the electoral Polls up to the midnight of 24 march 1971 together are called Legacy Data. Around 33 million people in Assam have to prove that they were Indian Nationals earlier to 24 March 1971. Thus there will be two requirements for addition in updated NRC-

  • Existence of a person’s name in the pre-1971 period
  • Proving a connection with that person.

Revision of the NRC was a colossal task for the state Government, where they appointed around 52,000 government officers. Hundreds of NRC Seva Kendra had set up to process the documents. List A and List B were the two types of Document list from which the applicant had to choose one.

List Of Documents For NRC:

List A consists of fourteen Documents which includes:

  • NRC of 1951
  • Electoral rolls till midnight of 24 March 1971
  • Citizenship certificate
  • Land and tenancy record
  • Permanent residential certificate
  • License/certificate issued by the government
  • Service/employment certificate issued by government
  • Refugee registration certificate
  • Bank or post office accounts
  • Passport 
  • Birth certificate
  • LIC policy 
  • Educational certificate
  • Court records

What Will Happen After NRC ?

The citizen whose name not mentioned in any 1971 Documents, can submit any one Document which specifies their parents or grandparents name along with the documents mentioned in list B.

List B consists of eight Documents which includes:

  • Birth certificate
  • Ration card
  • LIC/bank/post office records
  • Land document
  • Gram Panchayat/circle office certificate in case of married women
  • Electoral polls
  • Board/University certificate
  • Any other legal Document which is acceptable.

Leaving behind their names included in the updated NRC, citizens have to submit a family-wise application form. The application form provided to the government will be verified, and based on the results, the updated NRC shall be prepared. After verification, a draft NRC shall be published, giving citizens a final chance to submit objections, claims, and corrections. After verification of claims and revisions, the final NRC will issue.

Effect Of NRC In Assam:

The final NRC published on 31 August 2019, where 1.9 million citizens failed to make it to the list.

Following are the chapters included in the entire NRC update:

  • Publication of Legacy Data
  • Application form
  • Verification
  • Publication of draft NRC
  • Submission of claims, objections, and corrections
  • The final release of NRC.

What Will Happen If No Name In NRC? 

The final list of NRC has uploaded on the official website of the Assam government. If any person’s name not mentioned in the NRC list, he/she will not consider as foreigners, stated union home ministry. Such individuals can present their case in front of the foreigner’s tribunal within 120 days of the publication of the NRC list. The foreigner’s tribunal has to declare the results within six months from the date of filing the case. If one loses the foreigner’s tribunal case, the citizen can move to the High court and Supreme Court. In Assam, the government had clarified that in such cases, the individual would not be confined until he/she is declared as a foreigner by the foreigner’s tribunal.

What Is NRC And Why It Is Important:

The national register of citizens is essential for India. NRC provides a clear picture of the citizens who are residing in India for several years, and the citizens who are illegal immigrants in India. Several illegal immigrants from Bangladesh were inhabiting in Assam because it lies on the border of Bangladesh. If we talk about the NRC from the political point of view, it is essential to keep the illegal immigrants within the law of the nation. Some people might see this as a non-friendly behavior with the neighboring countries.

  • India can give help and support to the neighboring countries, but sheltering them will be a threat to the economy and security for the country itself.
  • These considerations should be kept in mind before the political party takes any uniform step.
  • With a growing and expanding economy of the country, it has become more important to keep the record of every individual who is living in the country legally or illegally.
  • These are the scenarios where NRC plays a vital role in securing the growth and development of the country.
  • If we talk about illegal immigration, we can connect it with the refugees.
  • The Myanmar massacre saw some activity in India and China that relates to the refugee. Within its refugee program, India had offered help to the neighboring countries from Tibet, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka.
  • Although this assistance was not provided to the Rohingya Muslims, it was not a religious disagreement. Though India was giving help to Bangladesh, it does not want to shelter the Rohingya Muslims.
  • There was an excessive flow of the Rohingya Muslims into the nation with the estimation of forty thousand residing illegally.
  • As it could be the situation of the militant attack on the border, there was a plan to exile them.
  • To keep national peace and security at a priority it’s necessary to establish NRC across the nation.

Amit Shah On NRC:

Amit Shah (the current Minister of Home and Affair), taking part in the debate over CAA in Lok Sabha earlier this month, clearly mentioned that NRC is about to come. In fact, in the BJP public declaration, the nationwide NRC found a promising place. The government indicates that it is under a dreadful pressure over the CAA, to sustain over the fear over NRC. The CAA makes Indian citizenship eligible for the Hindu, Sikh, Parsi, Jain, Buddhist, and Christian immigrants who had entered India on or before 31 December 2014 from Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh and had stayed in India for five years. Many people have expressed doubt against NRC as only non-Muslims will get the citizenship , as CAA excludes only the Muslims immigrants.

  • NRC has been prepared twice for India but only for Assam, firstly in 1951 and secondly in 2019. However, the NCR has made under the provision of the Supreme Court.
  • The Congress government of Assam, which was led by Tarun Gogoi, started working on it, and it was completed by the BJP government leader Sarbandana  Sonowal.
  • The act excluded 1.9 million people from the list in which around 1.3 million are Hindus.
  • The reason behind the rejection of NRC by BJP was they thought many Indians excluded from the list and many illegal foreigners included in the list.
  • The Bhartiya Janta Party has insisted on a nationwide NCR and creating a new NCR for Assam also. That has given rise to the counterplot that BJP has rejected the Assam NCR because it excludes more Hindus than Muslims.